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Students in this program will also study the historical and philosophical foundations of education and the application of psychological theories to educational practices.

Changes to APA 7th Edition

Here is a list of some of the changes from APA 6th edition to APA 7th edition:

  • The manual has two sample papers: one for professionals, one for students. Make sure you are looking at the correct one! 
  • The running head is no longer required for students and headers only contain the page number in the right corner
  • Font specifications are more flexible. Check with your instructor on which font and size they want you to use!
  • All in-text citations for works with three or more authors are shortened to the name of the first author plus “et al.” 
  • In the reference list, the number of authors included in the reference entry has changed: up to 20 authors are now included before the names are omitted with an ellipsis (...)
  • DOIs and URLs are both are presented as hyperlinks.  The label “DOI:” is no longer used. 
  • The words “Retrieved from” are used only when a retrieval date is also needed.
  • Book references now omit the publisher location (but still include the publisher!)
  • The singular “they” is endorsed, consistent with inclusive language.
  • Authors are directed to use one space after a period at the end of a sentence, unless the instructor requests otherwise.

Parts of References

What do I need to create a reference?

  1. Author(s) and Editor(s) names
  2. Publication Date
  3. Title of article or chapter of book
  4. Title of Journal, book, newspaper, magazine, newsletter, report
  5. Publication Information
    • Journals, magazines, newspapers- volume number, issue number, page number(s)
    • Books or reports- publisher
  6. Electronic Sources URL or DOI


  • For titles and sub-titles of a book, only the first letter of the first word is capitalized- the rest is lowercase (except for proper nouns)
  • For books, place of publication is no longer needed, but still include the publisher
  • For electronic sources such as websites or DOIs, they are formatted as links
  • DOIs no longer need "DOI:" before them
  • Retrieved date is no longer needed

In-text Citations

  • In-text citations tell your audience briefly where you found your information and act as a pointer to the complete reference in your Reference page.
  • In-text citations usually contain 3 parts: the author(s) last name(s), year of publication, and page number or page range (if applicable).
  • When paraphrasing you still need the Author(s) and year, but you do not need a page number since you are not directly quoting.


  • Direct Quote (article or book)- The cognitive element, often referred to as worry, refers to negative catastrophic thoughts concerning failure, and its consequences; the affective-physiological element refers to feelings of tension and accompanying physiological manifestations of anxiety such as an increased heart-rate (Putwain & Aveyard, 2018, p. 65).
  • Direct Quote (website)- According to the Minnesota State University Counseling Centre (2006), if you are prone to test anxiety, an important step in overcoming it is to try and discover in what way you perceive the test as a threat to you.
  • Paraphrase- In regards to panic and generalized anxiety disorders, Townsend & Morgan (2017) name two theories of etiology: psychodynamic theory and cognitive theory.


*Tip: If you tried to find a piece of information and you cannot find it (for example issue number) then skip over that part

*Tip: Your references should be in alphabetical order

*Tip: Your references should be formatted with a hanging indent

*Tip: DOI numbers look like a URL (

General Periodical Format (remember to format with a hanging indent!)

Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author, C.C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, (volume##)(Issue#), pp-pp. DOI or URL 

General Book Format (remember to format with a hanging indent!)

Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author, C.C. (year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Publisher. 



Journal Article (online, with DOI)

Brady, S. T., Hard, B. M., & Gross, J. J. (2018). Reappraising test anxiety increases academic performance of first-year college students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(3), 395-406.


Journal Article (online, no DOI)

Lewis, A. (2017). The outcomes, economics and ethics of the workplace wellness industry. Health Matrix: Journal of Law-Medicine, 27, 1–58.


Magazine or Trade Journal Article (online via database)

Rohleder Jr., W. J. (2019). Through a narrow slip: Construction of the new Cline Avenue Bridge over Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal, East Chicago, ind. Roads & Bridges, 57(5), 34-41.


Newspaper Article (online)

Carter, T. (2018, November 28). E-cigarettes and vaping taking the nation by storm. New York Amsterdam News, p. 27.


Edited Book, No Author

Maykel, C. & Bray, M.A. (Eds.). (2020). Promoting mind-body health in schools: Interventions for mental health professionals. American Psychological Association. 


Book Edition Other Than the First

Bush, S.S., Connell, M., & Denney, R.L. (2020). Ethical practice in forensic psychology: A guide for mental health professionals. (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

Library Services

  • Research assistance - help finding sources, evaluating sources

  • Online workshops for citing and plagiarism are held throughout the semester. To request a citing workshop, please email